The articles, Migration and Settlement of the Yuezhi-Kushan: Interaction and Interdependence of Nomadic and Sedentary Societies by Xinru Liu and Kushan Sculpture by Stanislaw J. Czuma are both historical investigations into the culmination and cultural contribution of the Kushana empire in South Asia, originating on the borders of the agricultural region of China as nomadic pastoralists. While Liu attempts to uncover and comprehend the impact of the Kushanas on the cultures of the people they conquered, Czuma’s investigation delves into the very specifics of Kushana influence on the ancient Indian art relative to the other eras preceding as well as following the Kushana period in India. Despite adapting two different approaches in investigating the Kushan influence, both the articles successfully highlight a very important detail often overlooked by contemporary scholars while tracing the development of human civilization; early civilizations by no means developed in isolation, rather these civilizations developed by means of exchange with other peoples. The aforementioned “exchanges” encompassed material exchanges and included abstract exchanges of ideas, and beliefs between the various civilizations, for example, the Kushanas were as much influenced by Indian beliefs and customs as the Indians were by the customs of the Indo-Europeans. As a nomadic people, the Kushanas lacked an intricate culture and so they did not leave a perceivable lasting legacy on the Indian people, however, they themselves facilitated the flourishing of the arts in India by being a patron to the arts, Buddhist art in particular and this was presumably their greatest contribution to the growth and prosperity of the early Indian civilizations. The Kushan Empire exemplifies one of the few domains in the history of the world in which the rulers had not imposed their own culture and way of life on their subjects or had not even attempted to oppress the culture of the people they ruled over, which in this case, is the people of the Indian sub-continent. In other words, the Kushanas seemed to harbour respect and admiration towards the customs of their subjects, a quality rarely found in imperialists from any given time in history.
18 Oct 2010 Leave a comment
The two articles, Myth and Construction of foreign ethnic identity by Bret Hinsch and Western regions under the Hsiung-nu and the Han by Ma Yong and Sun Yutang are crucial in revealing some key aspects of the relationship between the Han Chinese and their neighboring people in early Chinese history.
Hinsch’s work reveals the significance of ethnic identity in the relationship between the Han and their neighbours. History records show a fluctuating attitude of the Han Chinese people towards their neighbours, the Xiongnu in particular, a nomadic people of the northern region of China as well as the Xianbei and the Korean peoples. Political motive seems to always have been the driving force behind this fluctuation as it is explicitly stated in Hinsch’ s work that the Han would develop opposing myths of the origins of the Xiongnu people depending on their perception at the time of the Xiongnu. It is further evident from Hinsch’s work that ethnicity and ethnic origin were a matter of great importance to the people of Han China as the Han rulers would influence the general Han Chinese people’s perception of the Xiongnu by proclaiming their ethnic origin to be either pure or tainted, depending on their political motive of the time. This fixation by the Chinese people on their ethnic identity is evident even today in mainstream Chinese society as every Chinese citizen’s ethnicity is recorded in their individual passports, so that each and every citizen can be identified by their ethnicity which supplements their overall Chinese identity.
In Yong and Yutang’s work, the emphasis is placed on the cultural exchange between the people of the Western regions of China and the Xiongnu and the Han Chinese people. The authors place emphasis on the artefacts recovered from the ruins of the ancient towns of the Western region and based on these artefacts, they are able to derive the influence the Han and the Xiongnu people had on this region, e.g. the recovery of dyed cloth which had a Buddha surrounded by a halo and a dragon designed on it suggests the presence of Chinese influence on the local handicraft industry. However, there is a significant disparity in the way in which these walled city-states of the Western region were ruled under the Xiongnu and the Han. While the people of the Western region were treated as slaves by the Xiongnu, they greatly benefited under the Han rule with the introduction of the t’un-t’ien agricultural policy and Chinese technology for agriculture. What need’s to be considered in this regard, however, is that the sources studied by Yong and Yatong were Chinese sources from the Imperial libraries of China so this disparate account of the treatment of the Western people by the Xiongnu and the Han is of course very biased. It was political motive which was the reason behind the benevolence of the Han Chinese toward the people of the Western region as their main goal was to strengthen their alliance with them against the Xiongnu who were time and time again viewed as the foil to the Han throughout the early Chinese history.
27 Sep 2010 Leave a comment
In regard to the Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Language, philologists clearly had a major role to play in the tracing of the distribution of people across the world and the subsequent blending of their various cultures. This is for the reason that the investigation on the very root of language throws light on the development of humanity itself. What makes this article unique from the conventional Western historian’s perspective is that it highlights the strong ties between the present day world languages of Europe and Asia which are derived from the same parent language, Proto-Indo-European. By establishing the link between the Romance languages, the Slavik languages, Persian and the Sanskrit languages of India, Crystal conceptualizes the notion of a common source of all the diverse languages of the world. This notion, in the grand scheme of events, connotes the premise of a common root of humanity. In terms of the second article, the Encyclopaedia of Cultural Anthropology, Levinson and Ember have presented an investigation of the study of culture, ethnicity and religion from an anthropological perspective. Despite the attempt made by the ethnologists and sociologists mentioned to adopt a neutral tone in addressing the primordial way of life, there is clearly an element of ethnocentrism present in their approach. There is an existing parallel between this ethnocentric attitude of the social scientists and the attitude of the Western scholars towards the Orientalists as expressed in the introduction of Edward Said’s book, Orientalism.